- Delivering Truth Around the World
Custom Search

Jewish Slave Dealers and Owners

Smaller Font Larger Font RSS 2.0

Rabbi Bertram Korn makes reference in his essay, "Jews and Negro Slavery in the Old South," to the likelihood that some Blacks with Jewish names may have received them "either from Jewish owners or Jewish fathers." The list Dr. Korn uses is drawn from Carter G. Woodson's, Free Negro Owners of Slaves. He finds eight of "these Negroes" with Jewish names who own a total of 39 slaves. Like their fathers and owners, brought up in the Jewish tradition, they apparently felt quite comfortable participating in Jewish family traditions. It should also be stated that many of these purchases of Blacks by Blacks cited by Woodson, were for the purpose of freeing the slave from bondage, as in the case of Meir Josephson who stated in a letter that, "A free nigger wants to court her [his slave] and to buy her from me."

ADL book praises Jewish slave owners/dealers Calls notorious slaving firm "kindly"

A 1976 ADL pamphlet entitled, American Jews: Their Story, lists 13 pioneers of the American Jewish community - 10 of whom have been definitively linked to the Black slave trade. "These well-to-do men were highly respected by their neighbors and proud of their religious heritage," states the pamphlet (p. 15). Prominent American Jews such as Aaron Lopez, Moses Lindo and the Franks family are heralded in the pamphlet as the pioneers of trade (p. 14) and all have been exposed in The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, Volume One, as slave dealers. Aaron Lopez, a Newport merchant, owned at least 26 ships and recorded at least 13 voyages to Africa to purchase Black slaves. Moses Lindo of South Carolina imported 49 slaves from Barbados and owned a slave ship named Lindo Packett. He was largely responsible for the growth of the indigo industry and according to Dr. Jacob Rader Marcus (who is cited as a source by the ADL), he lived to see the industry "employ 10,000 slaves." Philadelphia's Franks family were merchants in the "Indian trade" and major suppliers of weapons to the colonists in the destruction of Indians. It is believed that Levy Andrew Levy was an agent of Franks when he participated in giving small-pox infected blankets to the Indians. The ADL pamphlet, published under the leadership of National Director Benjamin R. Epstein, also takes the extraordinary step of referring to the major slave dealing (and Jewish majority owned) Dutch West India Company as "kindly." ADL officials would not comment on the hate literature, and calls for repudiation of the Jewish slave dealing colonists were ignored. The question is no longer whether Jews were involved in slavery, but rather "which American Jewish colonists WERE NOT slaveowners or dealers?"

The firm of Mordecai & Levy operated in the Carolinas and placed this advertisement in the Gazette of the State of South-Carolina on August 12, 1778:

RUN AWAY the 4th of August, inst. a negro wench named Clarinda, of a yellow complexion, had on when she went away a cross-bar check coat, a coarse white linen shift, and a blue handkercher on her head, and formerly belonged to Mrs. Gordon. Whoever will deliver the said wench to the warden of the work-house in Charlestown, or to the subscribers in King-street, shall receive a reward of fifty pounds currency and all reasonable charges and whoever harbours or entertains her, may depend upon being prosecuted to the utmost rigour of the law. Mordecai & Levy

Solomon Woolf of No. 9, Broad Street in Charleston advertised in the Gazette Extraordinary of the State of South Carolina on July 15, 1784:

RAN AWAY From the subscriber, the 8th instant, a Negro Wench named SUSANNA, 28 or 30 years of age, about 5 feet 2 inches high, thick lips, is coal black, speaks tolerable good English. Had on when she went away, a blue and white calico wrapper, red flannel and Huckaback coat. Whoever apprehends the above negro, and will deliver her to her master, or secure her in any [jail] or work house, so that he may get her again, shall receive Five Guineas Reward. All masters of vessels and others, are forbid to harbour or take her off on their peril. N.B. The said wench formerly belonged to Mrs. Russell, of Savannah, and has perhaps gone that way.

Alexander Lindo (1753-1812) was a "major importer of slaves" in the late eighteenth century. He admitted to being responsible for the deaths of over 150 African slaves in the Middle Passage and 20 more upon their arrival in Jamaica, though he was never punished. Moses Lindo (1712-1774) of South Carolina was a wealthy planter and enslaver of Africans, according to the Jewish Encyclopaedia. He ran an advertisement stating that: "If any person is willing to part with a plantation of 500 acres with 60 or 70 Negroes, I am ready to purchase it for ready money." Lindo imported 49 slaves from Barbados in the 1750s and in 1756, he bought 2 African male children from John Gordon, according to a bill of sale. One of his slave ships was named Lindo Packett. Lindo was reputed to be one of the best judges of indigo in America or Europe. He was largely responsible for the growth of that industry from 300,000 pounds yearly to over 1,200,000 pounds. "Lindo himself handled millions of pounds of it. He lived to see the indigo industry employ 10,000 slaves," according to Jacob Rader Marcus.

Abigail Minis (1701-1794); In 1740, many Jews left Savannah, Georgia because of the restriction against slavery. Ms. Minis and family stayed, waited for the law to change, and then forced at least 17 Blacks to work her 2,500 acre farm. Her son Philip was president of Savannah's Congregation Mikveh Israel. Minis named three of the Africans, "Sue," "Lizzy," and "Sandy." He advertised in the Savannah Georgia Gazette, on June 28, 1775: RUN AWAY, A CREOLE NEGROE FELLOW, named Charles, well known in Savannah. Ten shillings reward will be given on delivery of him to Philip Minis.

Emma Mordecai was a Jewish relative of the Gratz and Hays families who enslaved several Black Africans. She described in her journal how the Jews participated in the lynching of Nat Turner's rebel forces by burning off the foot of an innocent Black man and cutting off the ear of another. They then rubbed sand into their wounds and horse-dragged them to their death. The slaves of Emma Mordecai included "George," "Cyrus," "Massie," "Mary," "Georgiana" and possibly "Phil," "Lizzy" and "Elick." She said of the freed Blacks: "They are as ill-bred as old Lincoln himself....They will now begin to find out how easy their life as slaves had been, and to feel the slavery of their freedom."

Levy Jacobs was a New Orleans and Mobile liquor and slave dealer who advertised to "buy and sell Negroes" in 1819. In September of 1828, he notified the public that he was expecting about 100 "prime, Virginia slaves, selected expressly for this market - among which are Ostlers, Carriage Drivers, Mechanics, Field Hands and Cooks, House Servants, seamstresses and washer women." As proprietor of one of the leading auctioneer houses of New Orleans, Levy was reported to have "paraded blacks on the slave block that was operated by Levy Jacobs and his Christian partner, George Asbridge." When he was accused of selling Kentucky slaves and not the advertised Virginia slaves he posted this notice:

Notice - A report being circulated that I have for sale no other than Kentucky slaves, I beg leave to state to the public that all the Negroes which I have on hand, and shall hereafter keep for sale are and will be Virginia born Negroes, of good character; that the person who has stated to the contrary, with the view of injuring me, I call upon in this public manner to come forward and support this charge if he can, or hereafter hold his peace. All Negroes sold and bought by me from traders (excepting at my own house) will be free of commission. L. Jacobs

Benjamin Mordecai of Charleston, dealt in huge sales of Blacks and penned them up like livestock next to his warehouses. At least one of his captives was named "Abram" or "Abraham." Of his participation in the Civil War the Boston Transcript reported that Mordecai "has presented to his belligerent state and city $10,000, to aid the purpose of secession, with the offer besides of a large number of negroes to work in the cause..." In 1857, he advertised in the Charleston Courier, "Prime Field Negros and House Servants" for sale. They included: Coachmen and House Servants Tom, 25 years of age John, 21 Lilburn, 24 Isaac, 22 Cooks, Seamstresses, Washers and Ironers Elvy, 18 Amelia, 22 Lydia, 40 Louisa, 40 Patsy, 19; Nurse Field Hands and Laborers Caroline,17 Betsy, 17 Catherine, 16 Octavia, 16 Mary, 28 Sarah, 30; w/ child Sarah, 18 Saunders, 22 Sampson, 30 Moses, 33; woodworker Henry, 20 Lawrence, 45 Dave, 25; laborer Henry, 22; tailor Lucy, 19 Margaret, 16 Milly, 17 Salina, 16 Nancy, 20; with 2 children Susan, 30 Caroline, 18 Benjamin, 25 Sam, 16; ploughboy Lindsay, 27 Isaac, 18 Byron, 22 Nat, 30; laborer and sailor Mordecai regularly shipped slaves to New Orleans between 1846 and 1860 and bought at least 102 slaves at Charleston district judicial sales of the 1850s.

Samuel Maas of Charleston, according to Professor Jacob Rader Marcus, took "only four weeks to be convinced that blacks had to be watched, disciplined, and, if necessary, ruthlessly punished. Slavery he agreed, was a sound institution; the Southern economy was built on black labor. The black made an ideal workhand, for only he, stemming from the torrid African lands, could tolerate the humidity, intense heat, and backbreaking labor of the Carolina lowlands. Undoubtedly, Maas was influenced in his views by his uncle and by the luxury of the well-appointed home with its massive silver service and numerous, obsequious slaves ready to respond to his slightest nod ­ all this impressed Maas mightily."

Isaac Elizer (1720-1807) owned the slave ship Prince George with Samuel Moses. He outfitted slave ships with bondage hardware and rewarded the crews of his profitable ships with African citizens. "He was a merchant-shipper and, like many of his friends and associates, occasionally engaged in the slave traffic." He was called a "notable and respected businessman" and was active in his Newport, Rhode Island Jewish congregation.948 Elizer and Moses wrote to their Captain John Peck, to sail to Africa and sell the liquor

for the most possible [that] can be gotten, and invest the neat proceeds into as many good merchantable young slaves as you can....As soon as your business there is compleated, make the best of your way from thence to the island of New Providence [Bahamas] and there dispose of your slaves for cash, if the markets are not too dull....And also we allow you for your commission, four slaves upon the purchase of one hundred and four, and the privilege of bringing home three slaves, and your mate, one....But further observe, if you dispose of your slaves in Providence [Bahamas], lay out as much of your neat proceeds as will load your vessel in any commodity of that island, that will be for our best advantage, and the remainder of your effects bring home in money. Isaac Elizer,

Samuel Moses In May of 1769, Elizer ran a newspaper advertisement: "Notice: Reward $5, return of runaway negro woman, Bina, threat of prosecution of harborer."

Jewish Maurice Barnett of Baton Rouge, Louisiana "owned" at least eleven African citizens. He was such a prolific slave dealer and auctioneer that twentieth century picture postcards of the "Old Slave Block" depict his office at 40 St. Louis Street. He was one of the closest associates of the slave breeding and smuggling Jewish pirate, Jean Laffite. Below is an example of the Black/Jewish relationship of the time:

SALES AT AUCTION By M. Barnett, Sen., Auctioneer Cornelius Hurst vs. His Creditors - Syndic Sale. On Monday, the 2d Dec, 1839, at 12 o'clock noon, at the City Exchange, St. Louis street between Chartres and Royal streets, by order of Alexander Grant, syndic of said estate, and by virtue of an order issued by the honorable the first judicial district court of the state of Louisiana, dated the 26th day of October, 1839, the following slave surrendered to his creditors by said insolent, viz: DICK, about 28 years of age, a well disposed man. OSBORN, about 26 years of age, mulatto; a good carriage driver and waiter, active and handy at anything he is put to. LUCINDA, about 22 years of age, Osborn's wife, very intelligent, good cook, washer and ironer. Lucinda's Children: COMMODORE, about 6 years of age, JOSEPHINE, about 4 years of age, HENRY, about 2 years of age, OSBORN, about 1 year of age. NED, about 19 years of age, accustomed to work in a brick yard. LOUIS, about 17 years of age, accustomed to work in a brick yard. MINGO, about 28 years of age, brick moulder, stout able bodied man. WINNEY, about 37 years of age, worked in a brick yard. PRISCILLA, about 24 years of age, stout able bodied woman. SERENA, about 21 years of age, a good off-bearer in a brick yard, and her child. MATILDA, about 25 years of age, cook, washer and ironer, and her three children, viz: THOMAS, about 10 years of age. TONEY, about 6 years of age. WILLIAM, an infant. SALLY, about 22 years of age, mild and well disposed woman; cook, washer and ironer. JULIANNA, about 21 years of age, and her child; accustomed to work in a brick yard. MARY, about 23 years of age, also accustomed to work in a brick yard. JACOB, about 25 years of age, stout man, accustomed to work in a brick yard.

Terms ­ Six months credit for all but Jacob, who will be sold at six and twelve months, for notes drawn and endorsed to the satisfaction of the syndic, who reserves to himself the privilege of refusing names as endorsers, until he is satisfied therewith, without assigning any cause therefor; the notes to bear an interest at the rate of ten per cent per annum (if not met at maturity) until paid ­ without this however giving the parties thereto the right of prolonging the payment after due. The purchasers will be allowed forty-eight hours after a notification from the notary that the titles are completed, to arrange the settlements, and if not effected within the period, the slave or slaves to be resold at auction, for cash, on the account and risk of the said original purchasers, without delay or public notice; and said parties held responsible for said loss that may accrue thereon, with all expenses, costs, & c.. Acts of sale before Edward Barnett, notary public, at the expense of the purchasers. The slaves not to be delivered until the terms of sale are complied with.

Aaron Lopez (1731-1782) was the most notorious of the slave dealing Jews. He was Newport's leading participant in the Black Holocaust, largest taxpayer and the epitome of the Newport slave dealing Jewish culture. His son-in-law, Abraham Pereira Mendes, carried on the murderous trade and built massive wealth in his own right. Born in Portugal Lopez moved to Newport, Rhode Island in 1752, renounced his Marrano past and built an extensive trans-Atlantic slave dealing empire. "What can be said about this most attractive figure," writes Dr. Marcus, "is that he lived on a baronial scale, maintained an entourage of over thirty persons, including the necessary slaves and hired servants, and had his own stable and two chaises." He was engaged extensively in smuggling and the owner of between 30 and 40 ships. By 1749, Lopez was generally considered to be one of the largest merchants in the country, shipping every marketable item including molasses, Blacks, rum, pork and bottled beer. He owned a wharf, arranged for building, chartering, and outfitting the vessels, hired captains and crews, and kept detailed accounts. Lopez reportedly launched his career as a slave merchant late in 1761 when he and Jacob Rodriguez Rivera began to outfit their jointly owned brigantine Grayhound for an African voyage. On January 7, 1763, William Pinnegar captained a Lopez ship which delivered 134 Africans to Lopez's Jewish agents in South Carolina, Da Costa and Farr. Four captains made thirteen of the voyages, two of whom died in Lopez's service.

Below are the recorded slaving voyages of Aaron Lopez in the years 1764 through 1774:

Sloop Spry, Capt. Willaim Pinneger, July 16, 1764 - May 22, 1766, stopping at Barbados, Jamaica, and New York on the return voyage. The cargo included iron hoops, iron chains and slave shackles. Slaves sold: 57.

Brig Africa, Capt. Abraham All, May 3, 1765 - July 11, 1766. Slaves sold at Kingston: 45.

Sloop Betsey, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, July 22, 1765 - August 21, 1766. Slaves sold at Kingston: 40.

Brig Sally (the Spry rerigged), Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, August, 1766 - July 1767. Slaves sold at St. Kitts: c. 33.

Brig Africa, Capt. Abraham All, October 20, 1766 - January 9, 1768. Slaves sold at Kingston: 69.

Brig Hannah, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, May 3, 1768 - May 4, 1769. Slaves sold in South Carolina and Barbados: 63.

Sloop Mary, Capt. William English, June 4, 1770 - spring 1771. Slaves sold in Barbados: c. 57.

Ship Cleopatra, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, July 1770 - 1771. Slaves sold in Barbados: 96.

Ship Cleopatra, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, June 16, 1771 - May 27, 1772. Slaves sold in Barbados: 230.

Brig Ann, Capt. William English, November 27, 1772 - winter 1773-74 (arrived in Jamaica October 8, 1773). Slaves sold at Kingston: 104.

Ship Africa, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, April 22, 1773 - August 1774. Slaves sold in Jamaica: c. 49.

Ship Cleopatra, Capt. James Bourk, June 30, 1773 - August 1774, Cargo consigned to Briggs. Slaves sold in Jamaica: c. 77.

Brig Ann, Capt. William English, spring 1774 - March 1775. Slaves sold in Jamaica: 112.

Mortality on these voyages was extremely high as this passage from the William and Mary Quarterly suggests: Captain Briggs had taken aboard twenty-one slaves at the Windward Coast south of Cape Verde, ten at Cape Mount on the Grain Coast, and sixty-seven along the Gold Coast - a total of ninety-eight. However, as Lopez informed his London correspondent, William Stead, there was severe loss of life at sea, and much sickness among the survivors forced a hurried sale at St. Kitts. Sally's log records the burial of six slaves at sea, dead "with the feaver and flox"; the loss was doubtless much heavier, as the log does not cover a four-month period of coasting southward and eastward from the Windward Coast to Cape Coast Castle....

The figure, given above, of thirty-three slaves sold is calculated from the sum realized on the sale of the survivors, who may have been more numerous than this but of low value because of their debilitated condition. The Cleopatra was assumed to have experienced very heavy mortality, according to Lopez biographer Virginia Bever Platt, because the ship had carried a "much higher number of 230 blacks to Barbados on her next voyage." Using this reasoning and simple mathematics, one could conclude that as many as, or more than, 287 Black Africans may have lost their lives in these two voyages of the Cleopatra alone. In the last recorded voyage of the Ann, "[Captain] English reached Kingston on October 7, having lost five slaves on the voyage but with his people apparently healthy. By the time the sale could be made, two more had died and the prevalence of 'the Swelling' among the remainder caused a drastic reduction in their value..."

Lopez's other commercial ventures were sometimes called into question. One Caribbean trader bitterly complained in a series of letters about the quality of the lumber, flour, and fish cargoes dispatched from Newport - consignments that often arrived out of season or in leaky vessels to which he had to give time and attention. Flour, too often was of low grade; staves and hoops for the making of molasses hogsheads were often worm-eaten and fish was putrid from being packed in insufficient brine. He found it difficult to dispose of such cargoes and implied that slave cargoes were easier to handle and more profitable.

Dr. Marcus discusses the household and business of Lopez and his utter dependency on free Black labor: "Lopez always maintained a staff of Negro domestics and in addition often hired Negro slaves from their masters, though in his papers such laborers were always referred to as servants, never as slaves. At least half a dozen negroes were usually employed at one time at the Lopez shop, storehouse and wharf. For his living quarters, Lopez supplemented his Negro domestics by hiring an Indian woman to wash and scrub and a white seamstress to sew and make garments for the family and the Negro household servants." Lopez took 27 of these slaves to Leicester, Massachusetts when fleeing the British attack on Newport. It was also Lopez who was identified as the primary Newport merchant who ignored the non-importation protest of British tax policies organized by the Revolution-era colonists. The man who fingered Lopez was Ezra Stiles, a leading clergyman and President of Yale University. He referred to Lopez in his Diary as "a Merchant of the first Eminence; for Honor and Extent of Commerce probably surpassed by no Merchant in America." Journeying to Rhode Island with his wife and family on May 28, 1782, he passed Scott's Pond, near Providence and was thrown by his horse into quicksand where he drowned.

Isaac Delyon, a prominent memeber of the Jewish community of Charleston, placed this advertisement in the South-Carolina and American General Gazette, on January 19, 1780:

Five Hundred Dollars Reward RUN away some time past, from the subscriber, a negro boy, named Harry, about 17 years of age, about 5 feet 7 inches high, round visage, had on when he went away, a Bath coating close bodied coat, leather breeches, green cloth Jacket and breeches; he is a very likely country born fellow, and speaks good English. The above reward will be paid on his being delivered to the Warden of the Work house, or to me in Charlestown; and One Thousand Pounds on conviction of any white person harbouring him. The said fellow formerly belonged to Boone's estate on John's Island, and has been seen by negroes lurking about said plantation.

Isaiah Isaacs (1747-1806); Born in Germany, he was the first Jew in Richmond, Virginia and a founder of the Congregation Beth Shalome, grantor of its cemetery land and slave driver. In 1788, he was elected to the Common Hall. He was in slave making alliance with Jacob I. Cohen and held Black Africans named "Lucy," "James," "Polly," "Henry" and "Rachel," and her children "Clement Washington" and "Mary." His business firm once took a Black captive as security for a debt. Isaacs placed this advertisement in the Virginia Gazette or American Advertiser on June 1, 1782:

TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD RAN AWAY from the subscriber, living in the town of Richmond, a very likely Negro woman named MOLLY, lately the property of Mr. Edward Busbel, of Gloucester-town; she is much pitted with the small-pox, about twenty-two years old, and about five feet six inches high; had on when she went away, a Virginia cloth vest and petticoat, checked; she had with her a checked apron, a callico petticoat, and a pair of leather high-heeled country made shoes. I expect she will make towards Williamsburg or Gloucester-town, as she came from those parts a few days ago. She had four horse-locks fastened on her legs when she went away. Whoever apprehends and delivers the said Negro to me, shall receive the above reward and reasonable charges, paid by ISA[I]AH ISAACS."

Referring to the words of Isaacs, the great Jewish scholar Jacob R. Marcus wrote that

the following phrases [are] redolent of the spirit of the great Virginians of [Isaacs'] generation: Being of the opinion that all men are by nature equally free, and being possessed of some of those beings who are unfortunate[ly], doomed to slavery, as to them I must enjoin my executor a strict observance of the following clause in my will. My slaves...are hereby manumeted and made free, so that after [30 years] they shall enjoy all the privileges and immunities of freed people....Each one of my slaves is to receive the value of twenty dollars in clothing on the days of their manumission.

The Monsanto chemical company has been developing a seed that produces one crop with impotent seeds so that farmers will have to return to Monsanto every year to buy seeds. The danger to surrounding crops through natural cross-breeding has the potential to destroy plant life. This is one of the 10 stories selected by PROJECT CENSORED targeted for suppression by the mass-media. Here is some MONSANTO history: The Jewish Monsanto Family of Louisiana included Benjamin, Isaac, Manuel, Eleanora, Gracia and Jacob. They made frequent purchases of Blacks including twelve in 1785, thirteen and then thirty-one in 1787, and eighty in 1768. In 1794, Benjamin sold "Babet," a Black woman, to Franco Cardel. Manuel sold two Blacks from Guinea named "Polidor" and "Lucy" to James Saunders for $850 in silver. As individuals they were owners of Africans whom they named "Quetelle," "Valentin," "Baptiste," "Prince," "Princess," "Ceasar," "Dolly," "Jen," "Fanchonet," "Rozetta," "Mamy," "Sofia," and many others. Isaac repeatedly mortgaged four of these when in financial trouble. Benjamin Monsanto of Natchez, Mississippi entered into at least 6 contracts for the sale of his slaves which would take place after his death. Gracia bequeathed nine Africans to her relatives in her 1790 will, and Eleanora also held Blacks as slaves.

Manuel Jacob Monsanto entered into at least 12 contracts for sale of slaves between 1787 and 1789 in Natchez and New Orleans, Louisiana.1135 "His family consists of himself and seven Negroes."1136 Later, "Jacob Monsanto, son of Isaac Rodrigues Monsanto, one of the very first known Jews to settle in New Orleans, owner of a several-hundred-acre plantation at Manchac, fell in love with his slave, Mamy or Maimi William. Their daughter Sophia, grew up to be a lovely quadroon." An excerpt of one of Benjamin's many slave contracts follows:

Be it known to all to whom these presents shall come, that I Benjamin Monsanto do really and effectually sell to Henry Manadu a negro wench named "Judy," aged Eighteen years, native of Guinea, for the sum of four hundred Dollars in all the month of January in the year one thousand Seven hundred and ninety one; and paying interest at the rate of ten per cent for the remaining two hundred and fifty Dollars until paid; said negro wench being and remaining mortgaged until final payment shall have been made; wherewith I acknowledge to be fully satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea of non numerata pecunia, fraud, or others in the case Whatsoever; granting formal receipt for the same. For which said consideration I do hereby resign all right, title, possession and claim, in and to the said Slave, all of which I transfer and convey to the Said Purchaser and his assigns, to be, as his own, held and enjoyed, and when fully paid for, Sold, exchanged, or otherwise alienated at pleasure in virtue of these presents granted in his favor in token of real delivery, without other proof of property being required, from which he is hereby released, binding myself to maintain the validity of this present sale in full form and right in favor of the Purchaser aforesaid, and granting authority to the Justices of his Majesty to compel me to the performance of the same as if Judgment had already been given therein, renouncing all laws, rights, and privileges in my favor whatsoever. And I the said Henry Manadu being present, do hereby accept this Instrument in my favor, receiving said negro Wench as purchased in the form and for the consideration therein mentioned and contained, wherewith I am fully satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea of non numerato pecunia, fraud, or other considerations in the case Whatsoever; granting formal receipt for the same. Done and executed, in testimony thereof, at the post of Natchez, this nineteenth day of the month of February in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety...."

Benjamin Monsanto, sold land and "a Dwelling House, Store, and two other buildings, for which I have received payment in a negro, named 'Nat;' to my full satisfaction." Another contract stipulated "that Don Louis Faure is bound to defend the said sale in case the negro shall be claimed by any other Person." In a 1792 contract, Benjamin mortgaged his Black slaves: "I do hereby specially mortgage three slaves to me belonging, namely Eugene and Louis, aged twenty four years each, the first named of the Senegal nation and the second of the Congo nation; and a Negro Woman named Adelaide, aged twenty eight years, also of the Congo nation; which said slaves I warrant free from mortgage or other incumbrance, as I have made appear by certificate from the Recorder of mortgages; and which said slaves I promise and engage shall not be sold nor otherwise alienated during the term of this obligation..."

The following Jews were known dealers, owners, shippers or supporters of the slave trade and of the enslavement of Black African citizens in early New York history.

Issack Asher Jacob Barsimson Joseph Bueno Solomon Myers Cohen Jacob Fonseca Aberham Franckfort Jacob Franks Daniel Gomez David Gomez Isaac Gomez Lewis Gomez Mordecai Gomez Rebekah Gomez Ephraim Hart Judah Hays Harmon Hendricks Uriah Hendricks Uriah Hyam Abraham Isaacs Joshua Isaacs Samuel Jacobs Benjamin S. Judah Cary Judah Elizabeth Judah Arthur Levy Eleazar Levy Hayman Levy Isaac H. Levy Jacob Levy Joseph Israel Levy Joshua Levy Moses Levy Uriah Phillips Levy Isaac R. Marques Moses Michaels (E)Manuel Myers Seixas Nathan Simon Nathan Rodrigo Pacheco David Pardo Isaac Pinheiro Rachel Pinto Morris Jacob Raphall Abraham Sarzedas Moses Seixas Solomon Simpson Nathan Simson Simja De Torres Benjamin Wolf Alexander Zuntz

All 1,265 references in The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews